Science/3/Physical Sciences 1.0 Energy and matter have multiple forms and can be changed from one form to another. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know energy comes from the Sun to Earth in the form of light.
b. Students know sources of stored energy take many forms, such as food, fuel, and batteries.
c. Students know machines and living things convert stored energy to motion and heat.
d. Students know energy can be carried from one place to another by waves, such as water waves and sound waves, by electric current, and by moving objects.
e. Students know matter has three forms: solid, liquid, and gas.
f. Students know evaporation and melting are changes that occur when the objects are heated.
g. Students know that when two or more substances are combined, a new substance may be formed with properties that are different from those of the original materials.
h. Students know all matter is made of small particles called atoms, too small to see with the naked eye.
i. Students know people once thought that earth, wind, fire, and water were the basic elements that made up all matter. Science experiments show that there are more than 100 different types of atoms, which are presented on the periodic table of the elements.
An important concept regarding energy is that matter has multiple forms and energy is released when matter changes from one form to another.
The students will understand how matter changes form.
• Identify the three states of matter
• Describe how matter changes form
• Explain the properties of matter
• ice cubes
• hot plate
• small pan with 1-2 cups of water
• computer with internet connection
• paper for charts
• books on liquids, solids, & gases (example-Solids, Liquids, And Gases, Series - Rookie Read-About Science, School And Library - 2004/09/01, by Ginger Garrett and Linda Bullock)
Anticipatory Set (Lead-in):
Set a “puzzle” on the board when the students begin science class. What do ice cubes, clouds and a glass of water have in common? Have the students think about the “puzzle” for a few seconds. Then ask them to share their ideas with a partner. (2 minutes) Then ask if they have solved the puzzle. Record their answers on the board. (2-5 minutes)
Lesson Plan Procedure:
After the students identify that the three things are different forms of states of water, ask them the following questions to guide a discussion (25-30 minutes):
• What caused them to change form? (Use the hot plate and pan of water to observe changing from liquid to gas. Ice cubes are example of becoming a solid.)
• What does your family use to change the forms of matter? (Heat or cold-Freezing ice cubes, setting gelatin/jello in refrigerator, melting butter or margarine, etc.)
• What is it that makes the matter different in each state? (This question is very difficult and relates to the spacing and movement of particles. If they do not know the answers to this question, show them the website at harcourtschools.com through a projector. Have the students construct a chart with three columns. Put solid, liquid, and gas at the top of the columns. Then as you show the students the information about the particles, have them sketch the particles and write the information about each state under the appropriate column.
Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set):
Have the students use the following question to reflect: How would I explain the states of matter to another third grader?
Assessments & notes
Assessment Based on Objectives:
Have the students use their charts regarding the states of matter and their reflections to write a paragraph explaining the states of matter. Use a writing rubric to assess the paragraphs.
Possible Connections to Other Subjects:
Social Studies-history of steam engines (train engines, ships)