Science/9/Physics 1.0 Newton's laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know how to solve problems that involve constant speed and average speed.
b. Students know that when forces are balanced, no acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a constant speed or stays at rest (Newton's first law).
c. Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (Newton's second law).
d. Students know that when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (Newton's third law).
e. Students know the relationship between the universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the surface of Earth.
f. Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not speed).
g. Students know circular motion requires the application of a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
h. * Students know Newton's laws are not exact but provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
i. * Students know how to solve two-dimensional trajectory problems.
j. * Students know how to resolve two-dimensional vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components.
k. * Students know how to solve two-dimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
l. * Students know how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
m. * Students know how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb's law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
Students will learn about short track speed skating and how this sport involves Newton’s first three laws of motion. Students will create balloon racers to demonstrate Newton’s Third Law of Motion.Students will also explore practical examples of the three laws of motion with a culminating activity that will require them to create a poster to educate and motivate other students to wear safety belts while in a car.
Students will learn about short track speed skating and how this sport involves Newton’s First Three Laws of Motion. Students will create balloon racers to demonstrate Newton’s Third Law of Motion.Students will also explore practical examples of the three laws of motion with a culminating activity that will require them to create a poster to educate and motivate other students to wear safety belts while in a car.
1.Ask scientific questions. 2.Define and discuss practical examples of Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. 3.Conduct an experiment with balloon racers to demonstrate Newton’s Third Law of Motion. 4.Create a poster to educate and motivate other students to wear safety belts while they are in a moving vehicle. 5.Set up an experiment, collect data and formulate a conclusion.
• The NBC Learn Video:Blade Runner: Short Track Speed Skating
• a copy of the worksheet, “Experiment Worksheet: Making Motion!”
• table cloth
• textbook (any heavy textbook will work)
• poster board
• long thin balloons
• masking tape
• measuring tapes
Anticipatory Set (Lead-in):
The teacher will start this lesson by doing an “old magician’s trick”. Cover a small table in the classroom with a table cloth. On top of the table cloth place a textbook. On the count of three, quickly pull the table cloth off so that the textbook stays in place on the table. It would be great to do this with plates, glasses, and other typical place settings, however, that is much more difficult to do! Students will enjoy and become immediately interested in the lesson just by using the table cloth and the textbook.
Explain that in their lesson today, students will learn how people experience Newton’s Three Laws of Motion every day. Students will also see how these laws can determine who wins races, such as the short track speed skating events, in the Winter Olympics. View The NBC Learn Video: Blade Runner: Short Track Speed Skating Lesson Plan.
Lesson Plan Procedure:
1. Tell students that they are going to review a few of the main concepts that were presented The NBC Learn Video: Blade Runner: Short Track Speed Skating
2. First, you are going to describe one of the Laws of Motion and they should think of which one it was (first, second or third): Tell students the following: “an athlete in motion – will tend to stay in motion and will keep moving in a straight line…unless some force moves him/her in another direction , for example, around a turn. That force comes from the skater pushing on the ice, to the outside of the turn, so that the ice can push the skater to the inside of the turn.”
3. Discuss answers and tell students that that was an example of Newton’s First Law. Explain that another way of looking at the First Law is that all objects resist changes in their state of motion. If an object is at rest (like a pencil on a desk) it will stay at rest (it won’t move on its own).
4. Tell students the following: “if the skater pushes on the ice, exerting a force on the ice, then the ice pushes on the skater, exerting a force on the skater”.
5. Discuss answers and tell students that was an example of Newton’s Third Law.
6. Tell students the following: “when a force acts on an object, it produces an acceleration of that object – it changes the object’s motion”.
7. Discuss answers and tell students that was an example of Newton’s Second Law.
8. Explain to students that they are going to do an experiment that demonstrates Newton’s Third Law of Motion. They are going to create balloon racers!
9. Thread a string through a straw so that the straw can move freely on it.
10. Attach one end of the string (using pushpins) into one wall and the other end of the string into another wall. Make sure that the pushpins are even (measure up from the floor) and that the string is about at waist level.
11. Students should begin working in groups at this point to prepare and race one balloon per group.
12. Each group should blow up their balloon but should not tie the end. One student from the group should hold it closed.
13. Another group member should attach the straw to the balloon lengthwise by using masking tape. Make sure the end of the balloon is held closed the entire time so that air does not escape.
14. Hold the open end of the balloon close to the wall. Have one member of the group put a piece of masking tape on the floor where the front of the balloon is.
15. On the count of three, let the balloon go, while at the same time start the stop watch. When the balloon stops moving stop the timer and use masking tape on the floor to mark where the front of the balloon ended up.
16. Students should complete the “Experiment Worksheet: Making Motion!”.
Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set):
Ask for volunteers to come up and try the same “magic trick” that you did at the beginning of the lesson. Ask students to name the Law of Motion that explains why the textbook isn’t pulled off the table along with the table cloth. (First). Students may want to try other objects to see if they can do this “’trick” at a more advanced level. Ask students to think of a practical, every day example of Newton’s Second and Third Law of Motion. Discuss possible answers.
Assessments & notes
Plan for Independent Practice:
Ask students to explain which of Newton’s Laws demonstrates why everyone should wear a seat belt when they are in a moving car. (First). Tell students that they are going to work in groups to design and create a poster, complete with information, pictures, and motivational slogans, to educate and motivate other students around the school to wear seat belts while in a moving vehicle. Tell students to include some reference and/or information about Newton’s Laws of Motion.
Assessment Based on Objectives:
Begin the next day’s lesson with the quiz titled, “Making Motion!”. (See attached quiz)
Possible Connections to Other Subjects:
Social Studies: Research Newton and the society/time in which he lived. What may have been some motivating circumstances to inspire him?
Language Arts: Create a booklet about Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. Write each law as Newton stated it and then rephrase it in your own words. Describe and illustrate at least one “real world” example of how each of the laws affect people.