Science/8/Focus on Physical Science 1.0 The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.
b. Students know that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
c. Students know how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
d. Students know the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object.
e. Students know changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction. 2.0 Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know a force has both direction and magnitude.
b. Students know when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
c. Students know when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change.
d. Students know how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.
e. Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).
f. Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion.
g. Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
Students will use stop motion animation to learn about various aspects of motion such as speed, velocity, and acceleration. Initially, the students will observe an animation and analyze the motion of an object. They will be introduced to a way of diagramming motion called motion maps. Next, the students will use their understanding of motion to plan and produce their own stop motion animations. Also, the students will have the opportunity to run their own 40 yard dash and compute their speeds.
Students will use stop motion animations to understand how aspects of motion, such as position, distance, speed, velocity, and acceleration relate to one another and how they are used to describe motion.
Students will learn how motion maps are used to diagram motion using position and velocity vectors.
Students will work together in groups to create their own stop motion animation to display constant motion and acceleration.
Students will work together to calculate their own speed by running the 40 yard dash.
Students will be able to:
Define motion, position, speed, velocity, and acceleration
Read and create motion maps to diagram constant velocity and acceleration
Create a stop motion animation showing constant velocity and acceleration
Discuss motion concepts in sharing their video with their classmates
Calculate their own speed in running the 40 yard dash
Animation Software: PowerPoint, Windows Movie Maker, or iMovie
Meter sticks or tape measures
Anticipatory Set (Lead-in):
Ask students how many of them like to watch football. What are some of your favorite teams? Who are your favorite players? What makes a running back good at his job? (Solicit brief discussion. Allow students to share.)
NFL running backs rely on speed and acceleration to beat their opponents. Who are some of the great running backs of all time? We are going to watch a video about NFL greats Deuce McCallister and Marshall Faulk. What do you know about these two players?
Say to the students, “How many of you think you can run as fast as Deuce McCallister? You will now get a chance to test yourself and measure your own speed. The 40-yard dash is a way that coaches assess the speed of players. We are going to go out to the ball field and allow you to run the 40-yard dash, just like the professionals do.”
Hand out the 40-Yard Dash worksheet. Directions are also listed for students. Note: It is not necessary to have all students run the race. You can have just a few students run and use the data for the whole class. Or the class can be split into four groups and have one or two runners per group. Also, it could also be arranged to have the data collected during a physical education (PE) or fitness class.
Student will first run a 20-yard* dash. Have two other students record the times using a stopwatch. Record times in the table on the worksheet. Average the times together.
*The distance can be in yards, feet, or meters as long as the second distance is twice the first. If the distance is other than yards, students will not be able to compare themselves to NFL players, but that is okay.
Double the time of the 20-yard* dash. This is the predicted time it should take the same student to run a 40 yard dash. Record the prediction.
After sufficient rest, the student will run a 40-yard dash. Have the same students record the times in the table. Average the times together and record.
Have the students complete the questions in the worksheet. This can be homework.
Discuss the questions briefly as a class during next class period.
Part II: Crab Run Animation (30-40 minutes)
Note: Stop motion animation is a great way to study motion. Several pictures are taken as still frames at different positions and stacked together with computer software to produce motion. In this activity, the students will produce their own short length animation displaying various types of motion.
Show the students two short videos - Football Checkers and Scary Chair Animation. Say to the students, “These types of videos are called stop motion animations. How many of you have ever made a video like this? (Allow those students to share.) Over the next couple of days our class is going to be engaged in a stop motion animations project. First, we will analyze another animation in order to discuss the various aspects of motion, such as distance, position, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Then we will be ready to begin our own animations. Also, we will be introduced to motion maps, which are a useful way to diagram motion. You will see that they are very similar to stop motion animations.”
Show the students The Great Crab Run animation. This can be done as a whole class (if there is limited time or only one computer) or have the students find the link by searching the title on YouTube.
Give the students accompanying worksheet questions. Have them work in groups to answer the questions (or it can be homework). Provide time for a class discussion of the answers. Students can post selected answers on a class whiteboard, or mini-whiteboards and then class discussion can ensue. Note: This animation was shot using 28 pictures played at 1 frame per second. It displays various types of motion, including two different constant velocities, two accelerated motion scenes, positive and negative velocities, and positive acceleration. It was compiled using Windows Movie Maker. See Windows Movie Maker details at the end of the Instruction Page.
Part III: Student Animations (50 minutes)
Students will create an animation during class time in which they display three (or more) different types of motion. The more digital cameras you have available the more groups you can divide the students into. Students can even bring cameras from home. (Make sure they have enough free memory space.) You may plan to shoot between 25-50 frames. You may also want to check that the image quality is not too high. This can use up excessive memory.
Recommendation: Probably the simplest animation shoot is to have the students go outside to the playground or ball field and use live subjects. Have the subjects advance one or two steps forward every frame. They can then turn around and advance back to the starting point at some different pace. Encourage the students to make fun poses along the way.
Have the students brainstorm a storyline. They can use live subjects, such as themselves or classmates, or they can use small toys brought from home. Live subjects can be more exciting because you can introduce more spontaneity into the animation. If time permits, they can check the internet for more examples.
Refer to the Instruction Page provided below. This is a sample and just one way to create animation. Feel free to modify it as necessary. Animations can also be created in a gymnasium, hallways, or classroom. This page can be given to the students as written instructions.
Have the students begin picture taking.
After the pictures have been taken they will need to be transferred to a computer and saved in a folder.
There are many applications that can be used to create your animation. PowerPoint, Windows Movie Maker or iMovie (for a Mac) are all simple options that may already be on the computer. Note: Probably the simplest option is to use PowerPoint. Load each picture into a new slide, and then select the ‘View’ drop down tab at the top. Select ‘Slide Sorter’. A miniature version of all of the slides laid out next to each other will be displayed. Right click on the first slide and select ‘Slide Transition’. Where it says ‘Advance Slide’, click on the ‘Automatically after’ box. Type in ‘1’ second. Then click ‘Apply to All Slides’. Be sure to save the finished file to the computer. If you are familiar with Windows Movie Maker then you can use it as well. Import your pictures into Windows Movie Maker and drag them into the storyboard at the bottom. Go to the ‘Tools’ drop down menu and select ‘Options’. There, under the ‘Advanced’ tab, set ‘Picture Duration’ to ‘1’ second. You can add music if you like. Finally, use the “Publish to This Computer” link on the left frame to complete the animation.
You are now ready to view your animation.
Set aside some class time for the students to share and discuss specific motions found in their animations.
Have the students complete the Motion Map worksheet for homework.
Tip: Make sure the photographer does not move or change the frame. This will result in jerky motion on the animation. A tripod is nice to have, but not necessary.
Tip: Keep storylines and scenes simple. Students may end up shooting the story again to improve the quality, so it shouldn’t be too time consuming. The goal is to be able to complete it during a 50 minute class period.
Tip: The Great Crab Race animation was intended to be quantitative and allow students to measure various aspects of motion. For students, it may be best to keep it qualitative, with no meter sticks or marked distances. Rather, have them take steps at equal distances.
Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set):
Ask the students to reflect on examples of acceleration that they saw in the NBC Learn video. Have them also reflect on the acceleration experienced during their 40-yard dash exercise. Have them create a motion map to reflect the motion of the 40-yard dash.
Assessments & notes
Plan for Independent Practice:
The 40-Yard Dash, The Great Crab Race Animation, and Motion Map question worksheets can be given as homework or as individual work.
Assessment Based on Objectives:
Motion Quiz: Speed and Acceleration
Possible Connections to Other Subjects:
Math: Students will find the averages of times and calculate speed as a quotient. Art: Class can work with an art teacher to improve their animations. Computer or Technology Class: Class can work with tech teacher to improve animations. Physical Education: Students can collect data during fitness class. Language Arts: Students can write an essay reflecting on their experience with creating an animation.
Adaptations & Extensions:
Have the students create their own version of the Football Checkers animation. They can be creative and use something other than checkers, like toy figurines or even chess pieces. They could even tape a miniature football field onto the floor for the player to run on.
Have the students create a bigger, more dynamic animation that can be posted online (with parental permission).
The three activities are designed to be done together, but each of the activities can be done alone, if time does not permit for all three. They can also be spread out over time and not all done consecutively on the same day.