Science/5/Life Sciences 2.0 Plants and animals have structures for respiration, digestion, waste disposal, and transport of materials. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know many multicellular organisms have specialized structures to support the transport of materials.
b. Students know how blood circulates through the heart chambers, lungs, and body and how carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) are exchanged in the lungs and tissues.
c. Students know the sequential steps of digestion and the roles of teeth and the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and colon in the function of the digestive system.
d. Students know the role of the kidney in removing cellular waste from blood and converting it into urine, which is stored in the bladder.
e. Students know how sugar, water, and minerals are transported in a vascular plant.
f. Students know plants use carbon dioxide (CO2) and energy from sunlight to build molecules of sugar and release oxygen.
g. Students know plant and animal cells break down sugar to obtain energy, a process resulting in carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (respiration).
Students will compare their own water and nutritional needs to lead a healthy lifestyle with those of an NFL player in pre-season training camp. Through an analysis of the nutrients and water they currently ingest and the effects of physical exertion, they will assess their own health, and apply what they have learned to designing an optimal pre or post training camp workout snack for their favorite player.
To get students to assess and reflect on the status of their own health with regards to nutrition and hydration, to develop an understanding of the importance of nutrition and health in maintaining homeostasis in the body during physical exertion and everyday life
Explain how factors such as activity level, height, weight, age and sex all influence hydration and nutrition needs
Describe the role of cells in maintaining fluid balance and general homeostasis in the body
Evaluate personal hydration and nutrition habits and determine how and why they can be improved
Food and drink packaging from items that students have consumed for day 1, computers with internet access for all students on day 1, one electronic or triple beam balance for every group of 4 students, 1 gallon of distilled water, 2 raw eggs for every group of 4 students (for day 2) that have the shell removed. To remove the egg shells, fully immerse the eggs in vinegar, soaking for approximately 3 days.
Optional: allow students to bring in ingredients to create their pre or post workout training camp snack or teacher can purchase ingredients and bring in
Anticipatory Set (Lead-in):
The day before the lesson is to begin, ask each student to bring in the packaging from a minimum of one food or drink item that they have consumed. The day the lesson is to begin, start by asking students to volunteer their favorite items to eat and drink on a daily basis. Record these ideas to refer back to in later lessons. Ask students to write down what they feel makes something healthy.
Ask students how many of them have ever felt thirsty and what they did that made them feel that way. Tell them we will be exploring some of the causes and effects of dehydration today.
Lesson Plan Procedure:
Day 1: Nutrition Needs
Collect all student packaging, then redistribute to groups of fours students. Ask students to record the number of calories, carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals per serving for each of the items. Have students record whether or not they think each product is a good or a bad thing for them to eat and why.
Give each student access to a computer, and tell students to go the mypyramid.gov website. Tell students they will be determining what their true nutritional needs are based on their age, sex, and activity level.
Have students complete the my food pyramid activity using the website.
Ask students to reflect again on whether or not the foods they analyzed at the beginning of class are a good or bad thing for them to eat and why.
Ask students to reflect on how their nutritional needs are different from an NFL player and why they are different. Share ideas as a class and record them in a place to save.
Day 2: Hydration
Have a quick class discussion regarding how all humans are organized from atoms -> cells -> tissues -> organs -> organ systems -> human organism
Tell students they are looking at a type of cell today, and the effects of water and loss of water on cells. They will be looking at a cell that is one of the largest cells on earth, a chicken egg.
Have students record the initial mass of each raw, de-shelled chicken egg (the eggs should already be prepared for them). This can be done by first having them measure the mass of the container the egg is placed in, then measuring the mass of the egg+ the container, and subtracting the mass of the container from the total mass. Have them then place one egg in a cup of distilled water so that the egg is totally covered. Put the other egg on a paper plate and in front of a fan that is on low. Leave the eggs for approximately 15 min.
While students are waiting on the eggs, ask students to make a prediction about what they think will happen to the eggs over time and why.
Have students measure the final mass of the eggs. They should find that the one in the water gained mass, the one in front of the fan lost mass.
Ask students to explain why they saw the changes in mass in the cells.
Ask students to explain why an NFL player in training camp may experience significant loss in mass from to the start of practice to the end of practice. Ask them to offer a solution as to what the athlete should do to replenish the mass lost by sweating.
Ask students to explain how they know that sweat is not just made up of water….they should also say it is “salty”. Ask them how athletes might be able to replace the salt/electrolytes they lose in sweat. This can be done through fluid replacement containing electrolytes, also through food itself that contains electrolytes such as pretzels and chicken soup broth.
Day 3: Creation of a snack
Ask students as individuals to pick an NFL player that is their favorite. Ask them to use their computers to research the physical statistics of this athlete such as height and weight.
Based on the known length of pre-season training practices, students should estimate the number of calories expended and the possible amount of water lost (in mass) by the player in a practice.
Based on their estimations in step 2, ask students to design a snack that the player could eat to improve performance during the practice or assist in their recovery from the practice. Their snack should meet as many nutritional requirements as possible based on the information they gathered from their food pyramid assignment.
Ask students to reflect on why they designed the snack the way they did and how it will help this athlete meet their specific nutrition and hydration requirements.
Let students make their snacks and allow others to try them if that is possible
Closure (Reflect Anticipatory Set):
Have students present the snack they designed to their classmates and explain why they think it can help this athlete improve their athletic performance.
During each presentation, students should evaluate the presenter using the rubric provided. Each student will then get the feedback from the rubrics and can change their snack design and explanation to improve their level of achievement.
Assessments & notes
Plan for Independent Practice:
Day 1: the my pyramid activity
Day 3: snack design and presentation
Assessment Based on Objectives:
The final activity in which students design their snack and are then assessed on their understanding of hydration and nutrition using the rubric.
Possible Connections to Other Subjects:
Math in data collection and analysis
English in writing explanations
Adaptations & Extensions:
Students could move forward with this activity by applying it to their own lives and designing meal and fitness plans for themselves that will lead to a healthy lifestyle. The mypyramid.gov website offers extension activities on how to do this.